Reason to spank 

Based on an anti spanking psa on you tube. A wife and husband debate spanking.

Joel and lisa had been maried for a few years now.  They had a six year old son. Joel tended to be fairly passive.  He was soft spoken and normally reserved. Lisa had strong opinions. 

Joel noticed that the dishes were piling up. This had become fairly routine recently. He had spoken tp her about it. Nothing seemed to change. 

Joel worked hard. He started out in the mail room and was now vice president of marketing.  They owned a nice home. She had her own car. She was well provided for. He felt like he had fulfuled his end of the social contract. Now it was her turn. He felt like she had a much easier job then he did. Apparently she did not see it that way. 

“Hunnie will you please take care of the dishes?” he asked. “I am buisy. I will get to it later.”she said. He had had it. He felt like he had had it.he tried to be understanding. He felt like he was beyond his breaking point. 

He stood up. “Get up!” he incisted. “What?” she said. “Get up!” he insisted.  She looked indignant.  “Whats going on?” she asked In an incredulous tone. “You heard me. Get up!” the usually mild manored joel instructed. 

She was shocked and outraged. “Why?” she asked.  “I am going to give you a spanking! ” he declared in a matter of fact tone. “Spanking! You cant do that!” she said.

“Many culrures practice wife spanking.  It goes back to the beginning of recorded hiatory. Probably before.  ” he said. 

“It is repugnent. It is barberic. ” she remarked. ” you spank our son. ” he said.”well thats different.  ” she said.”why? “He asked. ” well i dont know. It just is. ” she said. 

“You spank jimmy. He is only six. ” she said “well true. He is our son. I am your wife. Its different it just is.” she said.

“You disipline him when he fails to live up to his responsibilities!  You have failed to live up to yours. Is not it your job to mantain the home?  You have not lived up to your end of the social compact. Should there not be repercussions for that action as there are with him?” he asked. 

“Well this is 2017. We dont do things like that any more.  This is the united states. ” she declared. “Jimmy is a us citizen. You dont have a problem spanking him. Why is one ok and the other is not?” he asked.

“It just is. Spanking adult women is different then spanking a young child. That is just sinply how it is. “She said.

“Both are controversial. Some would say you are a bad mother for even considering soanking a defeness child!” he said 

“Well it is good for him.  He needs to learn boundries. He needs to learn that you cant do whatever you want. There are laws. There are universial rules. Rules recognized by almost every nation culture and religions. If they are not folowed there must be consciences. He must learn that he has responsibilities. We gave expectations for him. It is for his own good! ” she said.

“I have exspectations for you. I agreed to provide for you. You agreed to mantain it. Should you not provide for your end?”he said.

“Well it is different.  “She said “so its ok for him to shirk his responsibilities but not you?” he asked. “Well yes i gues. ” she said. 

“Are you realy not going to submit to being spanked? “He asked. “Well!  Alright fine!” she said.she got up. She was wearing black and white striped shirt and black skirt.  She got on his lap. He pulled up her skirt. At first he spanked her though her panty. Then he pulled it down.  

At first she was fine. Later she flinced. She screamed. Ahe cried. She apologized and hugged him. She held on to him. She put her cloths back on.she did the dishes.  

She knew now that he ment business. She knew that he realy did have expectarions. Dishess were not as much of an issue.  On ocasions she needed to be reminded. 

She found that spanking calmed her down. She even fantasized about being spanked.  Spanking was incorperated into there daily life abd sexlife.

The end. 

Notes

This was inspired by a you tube video.”15 reasons to spank”. It was an anti spanking video. It was comparing child spanking to wife spanking.it was designed to outrage. I gues the authors of this video are unaware of domestic disipline. 

This is a work of fictiona

Mandated spanking 

In a post apocalyptic America, a farmer turned politician introduces an unorthodox methoud to bring family Harnony.

Much of human hustory has been defined by patriarchy.  Male dominated leadership. It began with farthers becoming tribal chiefton. Eventualy tribal chefton expended and became kings. 

Even with the rise of democracy, women were not alowed to vote. In the united states, women got the right to vote with the 19th amandment. Women started to run for political office.  Jeannette rankin became the first womeb elected to us congress.  In 1992 the largest numbers of females were elected to the u.s senate in what was called the year of the women. 

Eqality became more and more accepted and became the norm.  It became unthinkable that this would change.  

In the 23rd century, after devastating war, the world was rebuilding.  There were not a lit of opportunities.  Crime rose up. Crime was on the rise in females as well. Female crime was at an all time high. 

This led to the rise of right wing parties all the world. Manny leaders and legislators were advocated to a return to male dominance.  Some nations have taken away the right to vote or limited female participation in legislatures. 

In the colerado confederation, they did not take away the right to vote or to hold office. They did encourage family. They had some interesting reforms.  

George drake had two jobs. He was primarily a farmer. He owned a fairly good plot of land.  He had animals and crops. He was fairly sucsesfull. He was respected. 

He was 38 years old. His wife was only 22. Jenny was never realy interested in being maried. Her parents were both dead. There was not a lot of opportunities for nan ket alone women.  She was not interested in joining a war lord or the mafia.  She did not want to be a prostitute. She maried george.

She did not cook or cleen. She was a bit rebellious. He wanted a more traditional wife. It led to conflict. 

This drove him crazy.  His default was to be passive.  He was a path of least resistance kind of guy. He also liked order. 

One day she refused to cleen the dishes. He told her in no uncertain terms that she needed to do the dishes. She continued to ‘decline’ his ‘request’ . he tried to communicate his wishes more dramatically. No persuasion proved sucesfull. This gave him quite a headache.  

“Jenny! Do the dishes now!” he said. ” no!” she said. He took her over his knee. She wore a blue t shirt,green skirt and was barefoot.  He pulled up her skirt and pulled down her panty. 

She skirmed and did everything she could think of to stop him. He staeted of soft. He more tapped her but then spank. It became more and more harsh.  

She was shocked. She did not think he would realy do it. She obeyed and dis the dishes. Spanking became more and more routine.  

Over time he saw a dramatic change in jenny. She became a great house keeper. She became pregnient with twins and became a great mom. His experiences with his wife Jennifer gave him an idea. An idea that he could pepose in his other job.

He was a farner and land owner. We have not discussed George’s orher job. You see he was also prime minister of the colerado confederation.  As prime minister he perposed mandating wife spanking.under his bill husband would be required to spank there spouses. 

While the bill was heavily debated. There was little opisistion to it.in the end the bill passed. The law provef very sucesfull. Couples became more happy. Harnony increased. It led to hapier man. Happy man are productive men. 

Nearby nations adopted this legislation.  It spread to many nations in north America and south america. It was hugly popular and sucsesfull.  

The end.

Note

This is a work of fiction ans fantasy.  The author is not advocating a return to patriarchal rule or eliminating womens suffrage.  The author is not advocating wife spanking ir domestic discipline relationship. 

I like the idea of a farmer who is part time prime minister.  I have wanted to introduce concept.  It worked hear. 

Diapered spank

A husband to be who is a proponent of domestic disipline discovers his bride to be is incontinent.

Patrick grew up in a family that believed strongly in domestic disipline relationships.  It was ingrained in him. Some might call it indoctrination. Both his parents were advocates of d.d. 

He liked the idea of spanking. To him it hardly seemed weird or unusual.  It was part of his culture and heritage.  Domastic disipline was definently going to be a part of his married life.

He met a young lady at his church. She was shy and quiet. She dressed modestly but elegantly at the same time. 

Her family was not d.d. his persuit of her was slow going at first.she was reluctant to date anyone. He bad no idea why. He was not sure if she was content to be single her life or just shy. Perhaps she was not just not interested in him. 

He gave her her space but tried to persue her at the same time. She seemed to recoil at every efort he made. 

She slowly let her gourd down and let him in a little more. When she gave him an inch,he took a mile. After a while he asked her out she said yes. They started off slow. 

After several dates, he asked her to participate in a formal courship. Lizzy agreed to court him.  Both had things they needed to discuss with eachother. Especially as the prospects of mariage seemed more and more likely.  

“There is something i need to talk to you about?” he told her. “Ok. There is something i neee to talk to you about as well. ” lizzy told him. 

“I believe in something called domestic disipline.  It is when a couple before there wedding comes up with a kind of contract . The contract lists a series of responsibilities and duties.  There are also repercussions if the responsibilities are not met. “He said.

Lizzy took a big gulp. She appeared to tense up.  “What kind of repercussions? ” she asked in a very qiet tone. “Well it could be anything from writing assignment to time out to spanking. ” he responded. 

She waa shocked. “Spanking?” she asked. “Yes. ” he answered. She was really shocked. He explaned that his parents engaged in this kind of relationship.  He stresed that this was a deal breaker. 

She was stunned. She was silent for a few seconds but then spoke up. “Ok! I can agree to that. ” she said.  

“What did you want to tell me?”he asked.  ” my bladder never developed propertly. My brain does not send proper singles.  I am bsicaly incontinent.  I wear diapers.  “She said.

He now understood what was going on. It made sense why she was so shy and qiet.  He was not sure how d.d would work with a diaper waring wife.  He was sure that lizzy was not the only incontinent wife in d.d movement.  There had to be disabled participants in d.d.

When they got maried, he was eiger to begin maintenance spankings. He had to figure how to spank efectivly but stil gentle and in a loving way. He did want to take her condition into acount. 

“Hunie!  Can you remove your skirt?” he asked. She unzipped her green skirt and let it fall to her feet. He pulled her over his knee. He started to spank her though her diaper.  It took a bit before it hurt.

He tried to spank her naked butt. It was messy. She realy did have little control if her bladder. He decided to focus on spanking her diapered but.

She was a sweet girl.she was asubmisive wife. Spanking was rarely needed .  she was a natural sub. She kinda liked being dominated.  She fiund it hot. 

He like that she wore diapers. He had never heard of abdl . he disagreed with the ab part. He was definently a dl. He learned that she loved diapers. 

They had children. They were a happy family.  

The end. 

Spanking in hospital 

A wife has a long stay in the hospital. She gets cranky. Will her husband let it go or risk spanking her in the hospital?

Dave and mary anne or mia as he called her had been maried for a couple years. They had two kids. They were both from a strict religious background.  There families were traditional and old fashoned in manny ways. 

They had agred to a domestic disipline relationship.  They both came up with Rules,  responsibilities and punishments if expectations are not met.  He came up rules and expectations.  She came up with rules as well. They say down and drew up a contract. Both agreed to it. 

They came up with consequences if the rules were not followed.  This included time out, time outs included sitting or standing.  There was writing assignment’s as well. There was also spanking. 

Both of there families had been part of a dd arangments. Neither side found it objectionable.  It was not really an issue for either of them.

Mia was a sweet girl.dave was a gentle man. Although punishments did occur , there were usualy miner isues . these isues were usualy delt with quickly and were resolved quickly. They were a happy loving couple. They had a good life and a loving relationship. 

Dave had his own real esate firm. He was a good provoder for his family. Mia was a stay at home mom. 

One day she woke up feeling sick. She could hardly get out of bed. She figured that it was just the flu or something.  She did not get bettter. 

Dave got woried. He began to suspect that something was amis. He was concerned that it was then a simple case of the flu. 

Mia was one who did not surender easily. She was a fighter. She did not let sickness get in her way. She tried to downplay her sickness. Dave decided that this was serious. He decided that she needed to go to the hospital.  
Mia tried to talk him out of it. She tried to convince him that this was not that serious . He disagreed.  He decided that he needed to force the issue. 

The kids were taken to there grandperents. He drove her to the hospital.  She was quickly admitted. She changed from her purple dress to a hospital gown.  They did a myriad of tests on her. 

She was poked and prouded in every way possible.  It was discovered that she had a virus that had going around. She had a more virulent strain.  

She was quickly put on anti biotics. The virus was not lufe threrning. Had she had been started on treatment’s when she was, it could have been become more serious. She was responding well to treatment. 

At first it was kind of like a vacation.  The nurses were very kind. Dave treated her like a queen any ways. He was going above and beyound. Alm she had to do was relax and get better.  She kinda enjoyed all the attention.  It was not so bad. Not so bad at all she thought.  

After a while it got old. She felt better.  She felt well enough to go home. The doctors were being super cautious.  They kept insisting she remain in the hospital for observation. The aluere had long sence past. 

She was bored. Stir crazy really. She wanted to do something.  She was tired of being in bed. For a while she kept buisy doing cross words but she got bored with doing them. 

She was personally opposed to any kind of television even cooking shows. She refused to even turn it on. She staired at the wall. She just wanted to go home.

She went from mildly disagreeable to down right cranky.  Dave tried to give her wide latitude. This was hard. He hated to see her sick.she started to cross the line. 

Some situations were more challenging then orthers in domestic discipline relationships.  While both sets of parents supported dd , that had never been an issue. If dave needed to disipline his wife he would make up an excuse to go into another room.  They did not do much outside or his work and church so it was not usualy in church. 

Hospital were a bit of a challenge.  D.d are not ilegal but they are controversial.  It could open several can of worms. It could provide scrutiny for his church and his real esate bussiness. His church did not have a position for or against although Manny practiced it including those in leadership.  

Dave had been lax while she was hospitalized.  She was saverly ill. She needed to be given latitude given the situation.  It was only fair. She was pressing every button he had.

She was becoming rude. She was meen. It was way over the top. He considered deeling with it when she got home.  By then it would not be as effective.  The isue was occurring now.it should be delt with now he thought. 

He made sure that no one was nearby he went to her. “Mia hunnie i love you.  You are the love of my life.  I hate that this has occured. I hate that you are so sick.  It breaks my heart.  You can still be descent.  You have earned a spanking and then some.” he declared. 

She was laying on her back.  She was hooked up to iv abs other devices. He made her turn around. Her but atuck out. He pulled up her gowan. She pulled down her panties.

He started to lightly paddle her but with his hand. He realy hoped that no one would come in. She took it on stride.  She cried a little.

He cudled her afterwards.  She huged him and apologized.  She was plesent after that.  No one caught on to what he did. 

She was finaly discharged.  She slowly got back to her old rourine. She was back to herlself in a week. She eventualy forgot the sickness. 

She has found memories of the restbit. She found the hospital spanking to be hot. They both laugh about it. They talked about it on occasion.  

It was a bad situation.  Good came out of it. Now it is a distent memory.  She had no  lasting efects of the ailment. She was back to her old routines.

The end. 

Family jail 

A husbend build a jail cell for time outs.

Greg was from a strict family. He was very strict himself. He was traditional and very religious. He farther had been a corrections officer. To say his farther ran a tight ship was an understatement.  Instead of resenting there upbringing, greig and his sisters admired this technique and saught to emulate this methoud. 

Ammy grew up in a more libertine family. They attended church and were active.  They were not lax.  They did discipline  and had structure but it was far more laid back then greig’s upbringing.  He jokingly called her  family liberals. To her they were a solid conservative family. 

She liked greig the first time she saw him. He was handsome ,inteligent and wise. She asked him out. He told her that he would think about it. He wrote a five page hand written letter in response. 

He gave her a synopsis of the last chapter of Joshua.  Joshua’s final chalenge to the poeple of Israel.  Basicaly Joshua challenged the people of israel to be faithful to God after he left the scene. They said they would. Joshua said that they cant foliw hin. They insisted they would. Joshua told them that they would be judged on the bases of this pledge. He told amy that it will be difficult to hqve a relationship with him.  He expects a lot. He wants respect and submison. He does not want to be undermined or qurstioned. If they were to be ub a relationship he would expect much. Any pre matied dating woukd be a dress rehearsal for future mariege. If she could agree to that then he would agree to date her.

He included a detailed contract. She had to agree to not apose or object to his views in public. She could not undermine him. She had to sign it. She had no problem with that. She signed it. 

“You understand that i will expect you to live up to this. Your adherence or lack there off will be taken into account when i decide rather or not to procede to the next level mainly mariege.  “He said. 

she was a bit taken aback.she had to jump though a lot of hoops. “yes i understand and eill ahdere to them.”she assured him. “you will be judged acording to how you handle this pledge.”he said.”i aceept that.”she told him. 

For manny this would turn them off.he was crash abrupt but not amy. Was she poly anish?nieve or did ahe just firmly beleve in nale orientated leadership. Perhaps she was not as liberal as Greg seemed to believe.

Dispite his being harsh was more laid back. He was quite impresed with het. She seemed to be an ideal match for him. After a time of courtship he decided that he would perpose.

A great uncle who had no ids of his own left substancial amount of mony to greig and his siblings.he decided to use the mony and put a down payment on a house. 

There was a good size basement. It was used as a game room by the previous owner.  There was a smal room used as a utility closet. This was perfect for jail cell.  

He decided to create a jail cell out of the room. This would be used when amy needed a time out. He put a toilet and a cot. He put a door witth makeshift bars. 

He then bult a spanking post outside of the cell. Her hands and feet would be shakled. It could also be a time out spot for more serious offenses.  

He brought hand cufs and feet and waist shakles from a surplus store. Hia dad set him up with an orange prison issue jumpsuit.  

When he bought the house he figured that this ment that he would perpose soon.she was suprised that he has bot yet. She had bo idea why. It did not make sense to her. 

Finally he purposed. “Yes! I will marry you.”she said. She knew greg well enough to know that there would be a catch. He would attempt to curb her enthusiasm.  Of course he did. 

“I have a contact. Please look ot over carefully.  I want to fully understand what will happen and what will be expected of you. ” he told her.

She looked it over. She was through any ways. It was prety standard for a domestic disipline relationship.  It explaned her duties and responsibilities it  explaned infractions and punishments.  Punishments included time out in the corner,written assigments,time out in the jail cell and spanking. .there was slo jail cell and spanking. 

She sae no reason bot to agree.  She did signed. It. They were maried. They went to there new home. Things wrnt well.  

One day was in a grauchy mood. He decided she needed. A time out. He had her walk downstairs. Her hands feet and waist were shakled. She found it difficult to walk down the stairs shakled.  

He removed the shakles. He told her to strip naked. She removed her gray sweter. Then she removed the black skirt. Then she took off her half slip. He had to pull off her panties. 

She put on an orange panty. Then the prison issue jump suit. She was placed inside.  After a while she calmed dowb. 

He let her out and let her change. They cudled for a while. Some days he just gave her spabkings. Other days he spanked her in the prison suit. Spanking was a last resort.

She was a sweet girl.usualy issurs could be resolved without going to a prescribed methoud. They were a happy couple..they had two kids. They had a good life. 

Notes

I kinda portrayed greig as a jerk. I tried to calm him down as the story progressed.  

I intentionally had amy ask her out. For a d.d it was a bit ironic. 

 

 

Law and disorder

A law and order fan fic involving wife spanking.

Based on charicters from the early days of special victim unit.  It is losely based.  

 Detective Olivia benson was driving home then she realized that she had paper work that belonged to her partner. She decided  to run it to detective Eliot benson. She heard a noise. She banished her weapon and kicked in the door.  She anounced that she was nypd. The noise was coming from the bed room.   She feared the absolute worse.  Her survival instict kicked in. She was in a kind of cop auto pilot. She did not think,  she only acted.  

She came upstairs.  She kicked down the door to the bedroom.  She ran inside. She saw her partner detective stabler taking hks hand and swating his wife kathy. She had worn a skirt .the skirt was pulled up. Her panty was down.

 “What’s going on?” detective benson asked. ” liv ! This is not what you think!  ” he said. He tried to explain this to benson. 

“Would you care to explain what is going on? ” benson asked. ” have you heard of domastic discipline relationship?” eliot asked. ” it is a fringe belief . often associated with fringe elements of fundimental and conservative evengelical protestant Christianity.   It is sometimes given the bick name wife spanking.  Other names for it are taking in hand or head of house hold. Eliot your jewish? Do you realy subscribe to this garbage? ” olivia asked. 

“We have been doing this our marriage? ” kathy asked. “You punish her?”she asked. “Yes. I was. I do. It is not what you think. ” eliot said. ” it looks prety bad. ” olivia said. She stormed out.

 “So are you finish punising me or do i get a repreve? Officer?” kathy asked. He was kinda out of her. He did not want to mantain order. He gave her the remaning swats. 

They had a series of duties and responsibilities. Kathy and Eliot had a fight in the morning. Out of anger she bad mouthed eliot to her kids. Eliot felt it was undermining his authority. Eliot decided to spank her.   

 Eliot had been angery. Folowering d.d procedure, he had her go in time out while both prepared for the ‘sentence’ to be caried out.by the time he started to spank her,he was not angery.

Kathy was mad at him at first.  She felt that he was making a mounton out a mole hill.  She had calmed down. When olvia came she was not angery . the two were fine now.

She felt bad that Olivia found out.it had been something that no one knew about. That she knew.  He had no idea if benson would tell captain cragen. Would the dreaded internal afairs get involved? Would cabot and the d.a office get involved. 

Would he have to see a shrink. Would the morrison commission get involved? Kathy bwas woried for him. 

If he was woried, he tried not to show it.he had survived police scrutiny before. He was still on the force. He tried not to be brothered by it. He waa confident that this would blow over. 

He went to the office next day. He wondered if he would be called into the captain’s office. Munch was on his well known rants whitch usually involved some kind of conspiracy theory. Everyone roled thete eyes. 

If he was about to be sent to the principles office there was no indication of it. He was glad of that. Mayby this was a good sign. 

He saw detective benson.  She talked shop. They discussed open case. They also discused the main case they were working on.there was no mention of the elephant in the room.

The day was productive. The cases they worked on were advancing. There report went well. It was surprisingly the same as it always was.

She never mentioned the incident.finaly he asked her about it.she said that she overacted. She trusted him. He thanked her. He asdured her that he was gentle and he rarely did spank her. She asdured him she trusted him.

What she did not tell him was that she found it kubda hot. Well after she got over her outrage that is. 

The end. 

Domastic disipline comes to your church

A middle of the road mega church calls a conservative pastor who suports Domastic disipline.

Trinity church was known as an evangelical church. It has a worship team playing the latest and popular worship songs. They were an area mega church. It was a seaker sensitive style church. 

The long time pastor decided to step down and focus on writing and holding seminas and conferences around north america and around the world. 

After doing an extensive serach a new pastor was called. Pastor ed was called to be the new pastor. He decided to take the church in a different direction from his predecessor pastor wilbur. Pastor ed was more conservitive. He did not alter the music but he made other changes.  

Pastor ed was in his early thirties. His wife Jennifer was in her middle twenties.  They had three kids. Jenifer wore only skirts or dreses. She was qiet. She did not say much.  She had a belchers degree in theology. She did not announce it to manny people but it was not a secret.  She was very different from her predecessor.  Pastor Wilbur’s wife was very outspoken. She was an ordaned minister and was on the pastoral staff and attended deacons meetings.  Jeny would not even consider attending deacons meeting let alone being active in one.

The children were well behaved. The family were well liked. They were hardly stoic. The pastor was known for his loud harty laugh. He lived the outdoors and paintball. The church satetday capture the flag had become legendary.  

The pastor did not like the direction of the church.  He felt that it was becoming too worldly.  He wanted to bring more order.  He was fine with more modern music. There were other things he objected to. Things he was determined to alter. 

He started off slow.  He made subtle changes. He was careful.  He tried to not ruffle fathers. He did not want to be removed and have a new pastor undo hia conservative reforms. He decided to do it quetly. 

Then he started a surmon series on the family. He explaned what he believed that the biblical view on fanilies. He discused the role of men, women as well as husbend, farther,wife mother etc. 

He then sliped in the idea of domastic disipline.  Many call it wife spanking.  Spanking is only part of the facets of dd. Spanking is one of the punishments. He tried to slowly introduce it to people in the church. 

At the same time jenn tried to introduce new or newer wives to d.d.jen was a huge advocate of this program.  She tried to encorege wives to obey there husbands as well as to submit even to punishments. 

Pastor ed grew up ina main line church. He attended a mainline seninary. He became more and more conservitive.  He learned of domastic disipline from a close friend and mentor.   He like the idea of domastic disipline. 

Jenny had been a goid student. She graduted second in her high school class.  She could have gone to sny school she wanted to but chose to attend the same thological school ed attended. She was smart but modest.

 He came to embrace dd after they were maried. “Hunnie! I want to introduce domastic disipline into our  family.  ” he said.

He explaned it to her. He thought he would have to ease her into it. On paper she apeared to be a feminist and in mannt ways she was. She was a submisive at heart. The talk of spanking made her horny. As he talked she fantasized about him taking her over hus knee and spanking him. 

She pulled up her skirt and pulled down her panties.  “Spank me!”she said. He took his hand and massaged her but at firsr. Then he got a little more aggressive.  She loved it.then they had sex.

There was mixed reaction by the people in the church.some would very suportive. Some were opposed and many were everywhere in between.  Many women supported it. 

Many women who were oposed to it got spanked but there were some men who were does. At the end ed survived a vote of confidence. Some left but others came to the church. It evened out.

The church after a few years under ed was different from wilbur. In many ways it was sucesfull. 

The end.